## Vibration Engineering Services

##### Flow Induced Vibration

Flow induced vibration is driven by flow velocity and results from turbulent mixing with boundary layer separation and pressure pulsations at bends, tees, reducers etc. This results in shaking forces at the bend, or tee, that generates low frequency (<100 Hz), longitudinal beam mode vibration in the piping with visible pipe movement or shaking. FIV tends to affect mostly smaller diameter low frequency vent and drain systems.

##### Acoustics Induced Vibration

Pressure reduction devices produce an area of turbulent mixing with shock waves immediately downstream of the device. This acoustic energy excites the high frequency (500-2000 Hz) circumferential mode. This generates circumferential vibration in pipe wall with no visible pipe movement that can result in fatigue failures at asymmetric piping discontinuities (branches, small bore connections and welded pipe supports etc.) that act a points of stress concentration or intensification.

##### Site Troubleshooting

> Factory Acceptance Test

> Site Acceptance Test

> Dynamic Strain measurements

> Modal Testing

> Operating Deflection Shape

> Finite Element Modelling > Noise Measurement & Mapping

##### Finite Element Analysis

The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics. It is also referred to as finite element analysis (FEA). It subdivides a large problem into smaller, simpler parts that are called finite elements. The simple equations that model these finite elements are then assembled into a larger system of equations that models the entire problem Typical problem areas of interest include:

##### Vibration control clamps

> Dimensional surveys

> Skid/Package 3D Model Review and Clamp Incorporation

> Concept/FEED Designs

> IFC Designs

##### Computational fluid dynamics

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how a gas or liquid flows as well as how the gas and/or liquid affects objects as it flows past. Computational fluid dynamics is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. These equations describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are related which can be utilised to a better understanding of flow related issues associated with piping components e.g. valves, bends and orifice plates.